Bangladesh is one of the most land-scarce, lightly forested and highly populated agrarian countries within Southern Asia. The eastern upland region of the country, Chittagong Hill Tracts is increasingly facing a number of social and ecological challenges due to forest loss, land modification, and growing population. Millions of people in this upland region rely on forests, trees, and agriculture for their social, economic and cultural needs. However, natural forest areas have declined dramatically due to excessive harvesting of forest resources associated with colonial policy and recent management approaches over the past years. Furthermore, driven by land use practices for monoculture management including trees and fruits and the swidden farming, the forested ecosystems have changed and modified as a diverse mosaic of land types. The changes have raised concerns about the future roles of forested ecosystem services and management in supporting rural livelihoods, in particular under changing forest and land cover. Within this context, my study examines the trends of forest and livelihood relationships by approaching with ecosystem service and sustainable livelihood frameworks.